The completion of the bioliq® pilot plant on the northern campus of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is now a certainty. Following the commitment by the German and Baden-Württemberg governments to provide 11 million euros in financing, the KIT has now also signed contracts with companies that will work with KIT in the implementation of the two final processing stages. These two stages involve the production of second-generation environmentally friendly biofuel from biogenic synthesis gas.
Whether it be syringes biodegradable joint screws or cannules for catheters - hospitals prefer high quality plastics that are not too costly. Pfaff GmbH from Waldkirch has the know-how and the technical ability to manufacture such plastics parts.
The Science Years initiative was launched by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research in the year 2000 to increase the publics confidence in the work of scientists. However the initiative has not been successful in the field of genetic engineering with the repeated destruction of trial fields sown with genetically modified plants being evidence of this. Professor Dr. Andreas Schier agricultural scientist from Nürtingen discusses why this is so.
The Freiburg-based start-up company Ö-Klo leases composting toilets and is committed to the recovery of human urine and faeces. The young Ö-Klo entrepreneurs believe that reviving natural material cycles of soil, plants, food and excreta is crucial in times when natural resources such as phosphorus are dwindling.
Mobile DNA elements are able to change their position in the genome and mobilise entire gene groups as well as switch genes on and off. Professor Bodo Rak and his team at the University of Freiburg are investigating the effect of mobile DNA fragments on the evolution of E. coli bacteria.
Dr. Gerhard Leubner from the University of Freiburg is investigating the regulation of seed dormancy and the onset of germination. The scientists insights are extremely valuable for companies that are working on the optimisation of seeds for agricultural purposes.
Biogas plants have become a familiar sight in Baden-Württemberg's rural areas. It might therefore be expected that broad experience exists in the comprehensive evaluation of this type of energy generation from renewable resources or organic materials. However, scientists draw a very differentiated picture. It is difficult to make any generalisations, although the analysis of individual facets can provide further help.
While the use of biotechnological methods for the purification of water, soil and air has already been state of the art for quite a few years, the use of microorganisms for the recovery of metal and mineral raw materials from industrial and agricultural waste has also started to attract the interest of scientists. This dossier addresses this topic, explains what geobiotechnology and urban mining are all about and presents some of the activities going on in Baden-Württemberg.
If we want to limit the effects of climate change, wood is the building material of choice as it can store carbon. As trees grow, they take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and, even when they are harvested, carbon remains stored in the wood for the lifespan of the product. Prof. Dederich from Rottenburg University of Applied Forest Sciences shows that even multi-storey buildings can be built from wood and be safe, durable and aesthetically pleasing.
The boundaries between traditional scientific disciplines are becoming less and less distinct. Interdisciplinary cooperation is often required to study complex processes and biomolecular issues. Interdisciplinary cooperation is central to chemical biology, a scientific discipline that applies chemical substances, methods and tools to the study of biological systems ranging from the chemical synthesis of biologically active substances to the specific chemical modification of biomolecules.
The Baden-Württemberg construction sector is currently experiencing a similar boom to the one that occurred in 1996. Between January 2016 and January 2017, low interest rates and uninterrupted demand for housing has led to an increase in orders of almost 10%1. A shift from conventional building materials to biobased building materials and products would likely also support the transition to a bioeconomy in this economic sector. The Institute for Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart could help make this transition possible.
Chemical energy is stored in the material used for packaging carpets and so on. Some of this energy can be recycled from discarded products. Every year the Thermische Restabfallbehandlungs- und Energieerzeugungsanlage TREA Breisgau Thermal Residual Waste Treatment and Energy Generation Facility located in the Breisgau industrial estate close to Freiburg converts around 170000 t of residual waste into electricity. Dr. Holger Heinig COO of TREA Breisgau gives us some insights into a process that harnesses heat and steam and he also talks about future prospects for the cogeneration of power and heat.
“We can do in ten minutes what nature took millions of years to complete,” said Henning Bockhorn from the Engler-Bunte Institute at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) referring to a method which his team developed for the energy supplier Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW). The patented method enables biomass to be converted into a material similar to brown coal. The method is known as “biomass steam processing” (BSP) and is currently being optimised in a pilot plant operated by Energie Baden-Württemberg.
The German city of Stuttgart purifies 27 million litres of wastewater every hour thus eliminating up to 95 per cent of the organic compounds. Scientists are now trying to find ways to use wastewater treatment plants for purposes other than the purification of wastewater. Besides making the purification of water more effective and complete the scientists are investigating whether fertilisers and hydrogen can be produced during the reclamation process.
New studies reveal that rivers are major contributors to marine ecosystem pollution. A study commissioned by environmental authorities in BW and four other German states analysed samples from 25 rivers to gain an idea of the occurrence of microplastics in German inland waters. In addition, Dr. Natalie Orlowski from the University of Freiburg is analysing microplastics pollution in the Dreisam River.
Biotechnology companies have always had international ties: they employ cutting-edge technologies and market the discoveries and developments of researchers around the world. Rapid innovation cycles and rapid technological developments force companies to undertake costly R&D as well as market their products and/or services across national borders.
Renewable energies do not come out of nowhere. The sustainable cultivation of firewood requires land for plantation. The main criticism of the use of land for the production of renewable energies is that the production of renewable resources is in strong opposition to the production of human food. The forestry scientist Janine Fischbach and her colleagues at the University of Freiburg are investigating ways to avoid a plate petrol tank dilemma.
Dr. Wolfgang Fiedler head of the Radolfzell ornithological station was practically born into his profession. Born on the Mettnau peninsula which is close to the station Fiedler spent hours and hours watching birds as a child. Later when he was at school he worked as a volunteer in the ornithological station.
Dr. Stefan Schiller from the Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry at the University of Freiburg became interested in the diversity of molecular possibilities in nature as a student and is now a specialist in bionic chemistry and synthetic nanobiotechnology. Amongst other things his work involves the construction of complex protein machines that transfer signals protein networks for use in medicine and drug shuttles that enable the targeted application of drugs.
Molecular biologist Marja Timmermans has found out how plant cells can communicate with each other using mobile ribonucleic acid molecules. The use of small RNAs (sRNA) is a fundamental principle that applies not only to plant cells, but also to animal and human cells. These days, Timmermans' laboratory methods are used around the world. She has recently been awarded Germany’s most highly endowed international research award - the Alexander von Humboldt Professorship. An Alexander von Humboldt Professorship has brought Timmermans from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in the USA to the Centre for Plant Molecular Biology in Tübingen where she will continue her research on sRNA mobility.
In 2013, with the backing of BIOPRO Baden-Württemberg GmbH and Plattform Umwelttechnik, the managing directors of GlobalFlow GmbH successfully obtained funding under the ”Young Innovators” programme. The programme is run by the Baden-Württemberg government and is aimed at giving university graduates who want to establish their own businesses the opportunity to develop their business idea further. Ursula Göttert from BIOPRO Baden-Württmberg GmbH met up with Nadine Antic, managing director of both GlobalFlow GmbH and albfertil GmbH, to find out how she has got on with her project.
In 2015, almost a third of Germany's electricity came from wind, sun and biomass. We need to continue reducing CO2 emissions to become even less dependent on fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum, and thus make electricity generation even more climate friendly. Baden-Württemberg has set an ambitious target for the shift in direction from nuclear and fossil fuels to renewable energy sources: reducing current energy consumption by 50% and replacing 80% of the energy used with energy generated from renewable sources, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 90%.